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Ivan Turgenev (1818-1883)

 

Novelist, poet, and playwright, known for his detailed descriptions about the everyday live in Russia in the 19th century. Turgenev portrayed realistically the peasantry and the rising intelligentsia in its attempt to move the country into a new age. Although Turgenev has been overshadowed by his contemporaries Fyodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy, he remains one of the major figures of the 19th-century Russian literature.

"A nihilist is a man who does not bow to any authorities, who does not take any principle on trust, no matter with what respect that principle is surrounded." (from Fathers and Sons, 1862)

Ivan Turgenev was born in Oryol, in the Ukraine region of Russia, into a wealthy family. His childhood was lonely. Especially he was afraid of his strict mother, Varvara Petrona (née Lutovinova), who beat him constantly. His father, Sergei Nikolaevich, was a cavalry officer. He had some literary contacts, such as Vasilii Andreevich Zhukovsky, a poet, and the historical novelist Mikhail Nikolaevich Zagoskin. After retiring he moved with his family to Spasskoe and then to Moscow.

While spending time in a dacha outside Moscow, Turgenev fell in love with a young woman. Quite soon it turned out that she had many other suitors, including Turgenev's own father. The incident later inspired the story 'Pervaia liubov' (First Love). Turgenev studied at St. Petersburg (1834-37), where Nikolai Gogol was briefly his professor of history, Berlin Universities (1838-41), and completed his master's exam in St Petersburg.

At the age of 19, Turgenev traveled to Germany. He was on a steamer when it caught fire and rumors spread in Russia that he had acted cowardly. This revealing experience, which followed the author throughout his life, formed later the basis for a ketch entitled 'Un incendie en mer' (A Fire at Sea). In 1841 Turgenev started his career at the Russian civil service. For a short time, he worked for the Ministry of Interior (1843-45). 

Following the success of two of his story-poems, Turgenev left his post at the ministry, devoted himself to literature, country pursuits, and travel. During his studies in Berlin, Turgenev had became confirmed for the need of Westernization of Russia. Lacking the interest in religious issues like his two great compatriots, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy, he represented the social side of reform movement. In a letter he wrote about Tolstoy's '"charlatanism" and even from his death-bed he begged Tolstoy to cast away his prophet's mantle. Dostoevsky, on the other had, caricatured Turgenevin The Possessed as Karmazinov. Turgenev's solution was not revolution, mystical nationalism, or spiritual renewal but in the industriousness of the confident, methodical builders embodied by the engineer Vassily Fedotitch Solomin, a side character in Virgin Soil. The "positive hero" was a new type of personality, who will liberate Russia from her backwardness. In the center of the book, full of discussions about progression, literature, aesthetic life, emancipation, beauty, patriotic principles, etc., is a love story, in which a young woman must choose her of way in life.

"You have only to look at Solomin. A head as clear as the day and a body as strong as an ox. Isn't that a wonder in itself? Why, any man with us in Russia who has had any brains, or feelings, or a conscience, has always been a physical wreck. Solomin's heart aches just as ours does; he hates the same things that we hate, but his nerves are of iron and his body is under his full control. He's a splendid man, I tell you! Why, think of it! here is a man with ideals, and no nonsense about him; educated and from the people, simple, yet all there . . . What more do you want?" (from Virgin Soil)

In the 1840s Turgenev wrote poems, criticism, and short stories under the influence of Nikolai Gogol. With the short-story cycle A Sportsman's Sketches, he (1852) made his reputation. It is said that the work contributed to the Tsar Alexander II's decision to liberate the serfs. The short pieces were written from the point of view of a young nobleman, who learns to appreciate the wisdom of the peasants living on his family's estates. However, Turgenev's opinions brought him a month of detention in St. Petersburg and 18 months of house arrest.

Turgenev had a life-long fixation with the opera singer Pauline Garcia Viardot, living near her or at times with her and her husband. At best, she was described as plain; one contemporary said that she was "personally hideous beyond compare." In 1845-46 and 1847-50 Turgenev travelled to France with the Viardots. Pauline, who had a number of romantic attachments outside her marriage, remained Turgenev's great and unfulfilled love. In his youth he had had one or two affairs with servant-girls, and produced an illegitimate daughter, originally named Pelageia but later renamed Paulinette. She was sent to France to be raised with the Viardot children. Pauline retired from the stage at the age of forty-two and settled in Baden-Baden, where he taught singers from all over the world. She also composed a series of operettas to Turgenev's librettos.

Mumu (1855) was about the cruelties of a serf society. In the short story a deaf and dumb peasant giant is forced to drown his dog, Mumu, his only source of happiness. John Galsworthy later said that "no more stirring protest against tyrannical cruelty was ever penned in terms of art." A Sportsman's Sketches was translated without the author's permission into French by Ernest Charrère, who introduced a new character into the tales. Turgenev protested in the Journal de Saint-Pétersbourg. James Meiklejohn's English translation from 1855, entitled Russian Life in the Interior; or, the Experiences of a Sportsman was based on this dubious French version.

In 1855 Turgenev met Leo Tolstoy, who had returned to St. Petersburg from the siege of Sebastopol. Tolstoy had not published his great works, but Turgenev recognized his literary genius - "I'm not exaggerating when I say that he'll become a great writer," he wrote to Tolstoy's sister. In 1857 he traveled with Nikolay Nekrasov and Tolstoy to Paris, and showed the younger novelist all the sights. "Turgenev is a bore," Tolstoy recorded in his diary in Dijon. The relationship between these two great writers remained tense, although they never broke contacts and has also family ties. Turgenev's mother had given birth in 1833 to a natural daughter, whose father was rumored to be Dr. Andrey Bers. He became Tolstoy's father-in-law. When Turgenev visited Tolstoy at Yasnaya Poloyana, he demonstrated a can-can to the children. "Turgevev, can-can. Sad," was Tolstoy's reaction.

Following the thoughts of the influential critic Vissarion Belinsky, Turgenev abandoned Romantic idealism for a more realistic style. Belinsky defended sociological realism in literature; Turgenev portrayed him in Yakov Pasynkov (1855). Between 1853-62 Turgenev wrote some of his finest stories and novellas and the first four of his six novels: Rudin (1856), Dvoryanskoe gnezdo (1859), Nakanune (1860) and Ottsy i deti (1862). In these works central themes were the beauty of early love, failure to reach one's dreams, and frustrated love, which partly reflected the author's lifelong passion for Pauline. Another woman who deeply influenced Turgenev was his mother. She ruled her 5,000 serfs capriciously with a whip. Her strong personality left traces on his work.

"Whatever a man prays for, he prays for a miracle. Every prayer reduces itself to this: Great God, grant that twice two be not four." (from Fathers and Sons)

Hostile reaction to Fathers and Sons (1862) prompted Turgenev's decision to leave Russia. As a consequence he also lost the majority of his readers. The novel examined the conflict between the older generation, reluctant to accept reforms, and the idealistic youth. In the central character, Bazarov, Turgenev drew a classical portrait of the mid-nineteenth-century nihilist - the word was introduced by the author, who himself was accused of causing civil unrest. Later the temperament of a nihilist found a number of different manifestations: the terrorist, the anarchist, the atheist, the materialist, and the Communist.

Fathers and Sons was set during the six-year period of social ferment, from Russia's defeat in the Crimean War to the Emancipation of the Serfs. The central character is the young medical student and nihilist Evgenii Bazarov, who has been described as the 'first Bolshevik' in Russian literature. "I share no man's opinions; I have my own." The figure of Bazarov was conceived in in the Isle of Wright, where Turgenev had spent three weeks in 1860, but the energetic student Belyayev in his play, A Month in the Country, already anticipated the type.

Against the radicals of the new generation (the "sons") Turgenev sets the older generation (the "fathers"), who are represented in the novel by the landowner Nikolai Petrovich Kirsanov and his brother Pavel. Bazarov makes a journey to the Kirsanov estate to meet his friend Arkadii, Nikolai's son. Arkadii falls in love with Anna Odintsova, the beautiful landowner, who rejects Bazarov. When Bazarov flirts with the young peasant-girl Fenechka, Nikolai's mistress and the mother of his child, Pavel challenges him to a duel. Pavel is wounded in the leg, Bazarov returns to his home and helps his father who is a doctor. Bazarov dies as a result of his failure to cauterize a cut that he suffers while performing an autopsy on a peasant who had died from typhus. 

Turgenev lived in Germany and France, and visited Russia regularly, but he also spent some time in England, where he met many prominent figures, including Thomas Carlyle, William Makepeace Thackeray, Thomas Macaulay, Benjamin Disraeli and Florence Nightingale. Fathers and Sons had a great success in London. He settled finally in Paris, where he lived with the Viardots from 1871 until his death. Turgenev was a corresponding member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. In 1879 he was made Doctor of Civil Law at the Oxford University.

"The whole life of Andreï Nikolaevitch was passed in the prompt performance of all the ceremonies established from remote times, in strict conformity with all the customs of the ancient, orthodox, holy Russian existence. He rose and went to bed, ate and drank and bathed, was merry or angry (though the second, in truth, rarely happened), even smoked his pipe and played cards (two great innovations!), not as it occurred to him to do after his own fashion, but after the law and ordinance of his fathers -- exactly and formally." (from Turgenev's 'Desperate', 1888, written in Bougival, 1881)

Among Turgenev's close friends in France was the writer Gustave Flaubert, with whom he shared similar social and aesthetic ideals. They both rejected extremist right and left and stuck to nonjudgmental if somewhat pessimistic depiction of the world. Struggling with his last, unfinished work, Turgenev wrote to Flaubert: "On certain days I feel crushed by this burden. It seems to me that I have no more marrow in my bones, and I carry on like an old post horse, worn out but courageous."

Turgenev died in Bougival, near Paris, on September 3, 1883. He had suffered from cancer of the spine, and once begged his friend Guy de Mausassant for a revolver. Pauline was by his side through his agony and pain. His remains were taken to Russia and buried in the Volkoff Cemetery, St. Petersburg. Turgenev's later works include novellas A King Lear of the Steppes (1870) and Spring Torrents, which rank with First Love (1860) as his finest achievements in the genre. His last published work was a collection of meditations and anecdotes, entitled Poems in Prose (1883).

For further reading: Two Russian Reformers, Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy by John Arthur Thomas Lloyd (1910); Turgenev, the Man, His Art, and His Age by Avrahm Yarmolinsky (1977); Turgenev: His Life and Times by Leonard Schapiro (1982); The Russian Revolutionary Novel: Turgenev to Pasternak by Richard Freeborn (1985); Ivan Turgenev by A.V. Knowles (1988); Turgenev: A Biography by Henry Troyat (1988); Worlds Within Worlds: The Novels of Ivan Turgenev by Jane T. Costlow (1990); Beyond Realism: Turgenev's Poetics of Secular Salvation by Elizabeth Cheresh Allen (1992); Turgenev and Britain by Waddington, et al. (1995); Turgenev's 'Fathers and Sons' by James Woodward (1996); Turgenev and Pavlovsky: A Friendship and a Correspondence by Patrick Waddington (1997); Ivan Turgenev, ed. by Harold Bloon (2003); Consequences of Consciousness: Turgenev, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy by Donna Tussing Orwin (2007)  - See also: Guy de Maupassant, Isaiah Berlin

Selected bibliography:

  • Parasha, 1843 (poetry)
  • Razgovor, 1845 (poetry)
  • Andrei, 1846 (poetry)
  • Pomeshchik, 1846 (poetry)
  • Kholostiak, 1849 (play)
    - The Bachelor (translated by M.S. Mandell, in Plays, 1924)
  • Dnevnik lishnego cheloveka, 1850
    - Mumu, and the Diary of a Superfluous Man (translated by H. Gersoni, 1886) / The Diary of a Superfluous Man (translated by Constance Garnett, 1899; David Patterson, 1984)
    - Tarpeeton ihminen (suom. Martti Wuori, 1915) / Tarpeettoman ihmisen päiväkirja (suom. Juhani Konkka, teoksessa Valitut kertomukset 1, 1961; Eila Salminen, 1980)
  • Razgovor na bolshoi doroge, 1850/1851 (play)
    - A Conversation on the Highway (translated by M.S. Mandell, in Plays, 1924)
  • Provintsialka, 1851 (play)
    - The Provincial Lady (translated by M.S. Mandell, in Plays, 1924)
  • Gde tonko tam i rvetsia, 1848/1851 (play)
    - Where It's Thin, There It Tears (translated by M.S. Mandell, in Plays, 1924)
  • Zapiski okhotnika, 1852
    - Russian Life in the Interior; or, the Experiences of a Sportsman (translated by James D. Meiklejohn, 1855) / Annals of a Sportsman (translated F.P. Abbott, 1855) / Tales from the Notebooks of a Sportsman (translated by E. Richter, 1895) / A Sportsman's Sketches (translated by Constance Garnett, 1895) / Sketches from a Hunter's Album (translated by Richard Freeborn, 1967) / A Sportsman’s Notebook (translated from the Russian by Charles and Natasha Hepburn, 1986)
    - Metsämiehen muistelmia (suom. samuli S., 1881; Hilja Riipinen, 1931)
  • Bezdenezh'e, 1846/1852 (play)
    - The Poor Gentleman (translated by Constance Garnett, in Three Famous Plays, 1951)
  • Mumu, 1854
    - Mumu (translated by Henry Gersoni, 1884; Constance Garnett, 1897)
    - Mumu (suom. Artturi Railo, 1910; Toivo Ahava, 1955)
    - films: Mumu, 1959, dir. Anatoli Bobrovsky, Yevgeni Teterin; The Journey of the Fifth Horse, TV film 1966, dir. Larry Arrick, Earl Dawson, starring Dustin Hoffman, Charlotte Rae, Michael Tolan; Mumu, TV film 1987, dir. Valentin Karavaev; Mu-Mu, 1999, dir. Yuri Grymov
  • Yakov Pasynkov, 1855
  • Mesyats v derevne, 1855 (play)
    - A Month in the Country (translated by M.S. Mandell, in Plays, 1924; Isaiah Berlin, 1981)
    - Kuukausi maalla (suom. Kaj Kauhanen)
    - films: Kuukausi maalla, TV film 1964, prod. by YLE, dir.  Mauno Hyvönen, starring Pehr-Olof Sirén, Mai-Brit Heljo and Harri Hyttinen;Ein Monat auf dem Lande , TV film 1967, dir.  Wolfgang Glück, starring Herbert Probst, Ursul Lingen and Peter Toifl; A Month in the Country, TV film 1985, dir. Bill Hays
  • Zavtrak u predvoditelia, 1849/1856 (play)
  • Faust, 1856
    - Faust: A Story in Nine Letters (translated by Constance Garnett, in A Lear of the Steppes and Other Stories, 1898) / Faust (translated by Hugh Aplin, 2003)
    - Faust (suom. Juhani Konkka, teoksessa Valitut kertomukset 1, 1961)
  • Rudin, 1856
    - Rudin (translated by Constance Garnett, 1894, in The Novels of Ivan Turgenev; Richard Hare, 1947; F.D. Reeve, in Five Short Novels, 1961; David McDuff, 1999)
    - Rudin (suom. Maila Talvio, 1896)
    - film: Rudin, 1976, dir.  Konstantin Voynov, starring Oleg Yefremov, Armen Dzhigarkhanyan, Svetlana Pereladova
  • Asia, 1858
    - Acia (translated by Constance Garnett, in A Lear of the Steppes and Other Stories, 1898)
    - Asja (suom. Juhani Konkka, teoksessa Valitut kertomukset 1, 1961)
    - film: Asya, 1977, dir.  Iosif Kheifits, starring Yelena Koreneva, Igor Kostolevsky, Vyacheslav Yezepov
  • Dvoryanskoe gnezdo, 1859
    - Lisa: or, a Nest of Nobles (translated by W.R.S. Ralston, 1869) / A House of Gentlefolk (translated by Constance Garnett, in The Novels of Ivan Turgenev, 1895) / A Nest of Hereditary Legislators (translated by F.D. Davis, 1914) / A Nobleman's Nest (translated by Richard Hare, 1947) / Home of the Gentry (translated by by Richard Freeborn, 1970)
    - Aatelispesä (suom. A. Grg ja O. Wrn, 1888; Juhani Konkka, teoksessa Valitut kertomukset 1, 1961) / Aateliskoti (suom.: Siiri Hannikainen, 1921; Oleg Korimo, 1947; Ulla-Liisa Heino, 1964; Maila Talvio)
    - films: Dvoryanskoe gnezdo, 1915, dir. Vladimir Gardin; Dvoryanskoe gnezdo, 1969, dir. Andrei Konchalovsky, starring Irina Kupchenko, Leonid Kulagin, Beata Tyszkiewicz, Tamara Chernova
  • Gamlet i Don-Kikhot, 1860 (a speech delivered in January 1860)
    - Hamlet and Don Quixote: An Essay (translated by Robert Nichols, 1978)
  • Nakanune, 1860
    - On the Eve (translated by R.I. Zubov, 1885-1886, Constance Garnett, in The Novels of Ivan Turgenev, 1895; Gilbert Gardiner, 1950; Stepan Apresyan, 1989; David McDuff, 1999) / On the Eve: A Tale (translated by C.E. Turner, 1873)
    - Aattona (suom. Auramo, 1883)
    - film: Nakanune, 1959, dir. Vladimir Petrov, starring Lubomir Kabakchiyev, Irina Milopolskaya, Boris Livanov
  • Nakhlebnik, 1857/1862 (play)
    - The Family Charge (translated by M.S. Mandell, in Plays, 1924) / Fortune’s fool: A Play (adapted by Mike Poulton, 2002)  
    - film: Nakhlebnik, 1953, dir.  Vladimir Basov, Mstislav Korchagin, starring Boris Chirkov, Sergei Kurilov and Lidiya Dranovskaya 
  • Pervaia liubov, 1869
    - First Love, and Punin and Baburin (translated by S. Jerrold, 1884) / First Love (translated by Isaiah Berlin, 1950)
    - Ensi lempi (suom. Auramo, 1883) / Lemmentarina (suom. U. J. Vuorjoki, 1913) / Ensimmäinen rakkauteni (suom. Siiri Hannikainen, 1918) / Ensimmäinen rakkaus (suom. Juhani Konkka, 1952) / Ensirakkaus (suom. Martti Anhava, 2001)
    - films: Primer amor, 1941 dir. Claudio de la Torre; Erste Liebe, 1970, dir. by Maximilian Schell, starring John Moulder-Brown, Dominique Sanda, Maximilian Schell; El Primer amor, 1974, dir. by José Díaz Morales; Summer Lightning, 1984, dir. Paul Joyce, starring  Edward Rawle-Hicks, Paul Scofield and Tom Bell; Pervaya lyubov, 1995, dir. Roman Balayan, starring Andrei Ishchenko, Marina Neyolova, Anna Mikhalkva; All Forgotten, 2000, prod. Overseas FilmGroup, dir. Reverge Anselmo, featuring Kirsten Dunst, Julie Walters, Geraldine James, Nathaniel Parker, Nick Stahl
  • Ottsy i deti, 1862
    - Fathers and Children (translated by Constance Garnett, in The Novels of Ivan Turgenev, 1895; Richard Hare, 1947; Avril Pyman, 1991; Michael R. Katz, 2nd ed., 2009; Michael Pursglove, 2010) / Fathers and Sons (translated by Eugene Schuyler, 1867; George Reavey, 1950; C.J. Hogarth, 1955; Bernard Guilbert Guerney, 1961; Rosemary Edmunds, 1965; Bernard Isaacs, 1988; Ralph E. Matlaw, 2nd ed., 1989; Richard Freeborn, 1991; Michael R. Katz, 1994; Peter Carson, 2009)
    - Isät ja lapset (suom. Santeri Roine, 1892; Samuli S., 1906; S. Seraste, 1946; Juhani Konkka, 1963) / Isät ja pojat (suom. Kauko Niemelä, 1973)
    - films: Ottsy i deti, 1959, dir. Adolf Bergunker, Natalya Rashevskaya, featuring Viktor Avdyushko, Nikolai Sergeyev, Yekaterina Alexandrovskaya, Eduard Martsevich; Ottsy i deti, TV series 1983, prod. Belarusfilm, dir. Vyacheslav Nikiforov; Ottsy i deti, TV series 2008, prod. Rekun Cinema, dir. Dunya Smirnova, featuring Alexandr Ustyugov, Aleksandr Skotnikov, Andrei Smirnov, Anatoli Vasilyev, Ekaterina Vilkova
  • Dym, 1867
    - Smoke: or, Life at Baden (translated by William West, 1872) / Smoke (translated by Constance Garnett, in The Novels of Ivan Turgenev, 1896)
    - Savua (suom. Samuli S.; 1899; Matti Lehmonen, 1946)
    -  Dym, TV mini-series 1992, prod. by Petropol, dir. Ayan Shakhmaliyeva, starring Larisa Menshikova, Stanislav Lyubshin and Vladislav Vetrov 
  • Stepnoy Korol' Lir, 1870
    - A Liar of the Steppe (translated by W.H. Browne, 1874) / A Lear of the Steppes (translated by Constance Garnett, 1898) / A King Lear of the Steppes (translated by F.D. Reeve, in Five short Novels, 1961; Richard Freeborn, in First Love and Other Stories, 1989)
    - Kuningas Lear arolla (suom. S. Suomalainen, 1886) / Aron kuningas Lear (suom. Juhani Konkka, teoksessa Valitut kertomukset 2, 1961)
  • Veshinye vody, 1872
    - Spring Floods (translated by S.M. Batts, 1874; E. Richter, 1895) / Torrents of Spring (translated by Constance Garnett, 1897; Tatiana Litvinov, 1996) / Spring Torrents (translated by Leonard Shapiro, 1972)
    - films: Chun chao, 1959, dir. Qin Tao; Torrents of Spring, 1989, dir. Jerzy Skolimowski, starring Timothy Hutton, Nastassja Kinski, Valeria Golino, William Forsythe; Poyezdka v Visbaden, 1989, dir. Yevgeni Gerasimov, starring Sergei Zhigunov, Yelena Seropova, Natalya Lapina, Zinovi Gerdt
  • Literaturnye i zhiteiskie vospominaniia, 1874 (rev. 1880)
    - Literary Reminiscenes and Autobiographical Fragments (translated by David Magarshack, 1958)
  • Nov, 1877
    - Virgin Soil (translated by T.S. Perry, 1877; Ashton W. Dilke, 1878; Constance Garnett, in The Novels of Ivan Turgenev, 1896)
    - Neitsytmantu (suom. Jarmo Helin, 2007)
  • Senilia, 1878
    - Senilia: Poems in Prose (translated by S.J. Macmullan, 1890)
    - Senilia: suorasanaisia runoelmia (suom. Alho, 1889)
  • Pesn' torzhestvuiushchei liubvi, 1881
    - The Song of the Triumphant Love (translated by Jessica Morelle, 1990)
    - Voittoisan rakkauden laulu (suom. Juhani Konkka, teoksessa Valitut kertomukset 2, 1961)
    - film: Pesn torzhestvuyushchey lyubvi, 1915, dir. Yevgeni Bauer, starring Vera Kholodnaya, Vitold Polonsky and Ossip Runitsch
  • Klara Milich, 1882
    - Klara Milich (translated by Robert Dessaix, in The Mysterious Tales, 1979)
    - Klara Milits (suom. Juhani Konkka, teoksessa Valitut kertomukset 2, 1961)
    - film:  Posle smerti / Mad Love, 1915, dir. Yevgeni Bauer, starring Vitold Polonsky, Olga Rakhmanova and Vera Karalli
  • Vecher v Sorrente, 1882 (play)
    - An Evening in Sorrento (translated by M.S. Mandell, in Plays, 1924)
  • Poemy v proze, 1883
  • The Novels of Turgenev, 1894-1899 (15 vols., translated by Constance Garnett; reprinted in 17 vols 1919-1923)
  • Dream Tales and Prose Poems, 1897 (collection)
  • Novels and Stories of Ivan Turgenev, 1903-04 (13 vols., translated by Isabel F. Hapgood, with an introduction by Henry James)
  • Phantoms and Other Stories, 1904 (collection)
  • A Recless Character and Other Stories, 1904 (collection)
  • Plays, 1924 (translated by M.S. Mandell)
  • Three Famous Plays, 1951 (translated by Constance Garnett)
  • Turgenev’s Letters: A Selection, 1960 (edited and translated from the Russian, French, and German originals by Edgar H. Lehrman)
  • Polnoe sobranie sochinenii i pisem, 1960-68 (28 vols.)  
  • Povesti i rasskazy, 1963
  • Rasskazy, 1968
  • Sobranie sochinenii, 1968 (6 vols.)
  • Romany, 1969
  • The Dodillon Copies of Letters by Turgenev to Pauline & Louis Viardot, 1970 (edited by Patrick Waddington)
  • Stikhotvoreniia i poemy, 1970
  • Polnoe sobranie sochinenii i pisem, 1978-86 (30 vols.)
  • The Mysterious Tales of Ivan Turgenev, 1979 (translated from the Russian with introd. by Robert Dessaix)
  • Pis'ma v vosemnadtsati tomakh, 1982-
  • Povesti i rasskazy, 1874-1877; Nov': 1876, 1982
  • Povesti i rasskazy, 1881-1883; Stikhotvoreniia v proze, 1878-1883, 1982
  • First Love and A Fire at Sea, 1983 (2 vols., translated by Isaiah Berlin)
  • Flauberts and Turgenev: A Friendship in Letters: The Complete Correspondence, 1985 (edited and translated by Barbara Beaumont)
  • Three Novellas about Love, 1990 (rev. ed., translated by Ivy and Tatiana Litvinov)
  • The Essential Turgenev, 1994 (edited by Elizabeth Cheresh Allen)


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