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|Leif Panduro (1923-1977)|
Danish dramatist and novelist, whose work combined satiric humor with pessimistic view of the world. Panduro gained in the 1960s and 1970s a central position in Danish literature. He often depicted young rebels and middle-aged neurotics, who were in conflict with the established society. Panduro also wrote several scripts for television, radio, and film. Often characterized as a kind of national psychotherapist, his TV dramas penetrated deep into the consciousness of the audience.
"Den nat drømde Jacob to drømme. Den første kendte han igen. Han drømte Adrian drunknede ham i sin swimmingpool. I den anden elskede Jacob med pigen. Så dukkede Adrian pludselig op og ville have sin urin undersøgt. Derefter skete der en forverksling mellem pigen of Adrian. Jacob var meget forvirret da han vågnade." (in Den ubetænksomme elsker, 1973)
Leif Panduro was born Leif Thormod Petersen in Frederiksberg, near Copenhagen. His childhood was traumatic: his parents separated shortly after he was born and he spent times in children's home, before he moved into the home of his aunt. Anne Johanne, Panduro's mother, was confined to an institution for a long period after the divorce. When German occupied Denmark during World War II, Panduro supported the Resistance movement his father, Aage Petersen, sympathized the Nazis, and was killed in 1944. Panduro himself was wounded in May 1945.
Upon finishing dental school in 1947, Panduro married Esther Larsen, whom he had met at the school. They then moved to Sweden, where he practiced dentistry in Borås and Osby until returning to Denmark. Between 1956 and 1962 he worked as a school dentist in Esbjerg. Panduro had already began to write in Osby as a form of therapy but from 1965 he devoted himself entirely to writing. In 1976 he was elected member of the Danish Academy. His last years Panduro spent in Fredriksværk on the island of Sjælland, where he led a very regular life. Once a week, on a certain day, he visited the local public library. With his wife Esther he bicycled on sunny afternoons to the beach and had a swim. After writing Sunday columns for some years, Panduro gave it up, saying that he got tired of always having to have an opinion. Panduro died at the age of 53 on January 16, 1977, in Asserbo. He received many prizes including the Critic's Prize for 1963, the Danish Academy Literature Prize in 1971 and the Holberg Medal in 1971.
Panduro made his literary debut with Historien om Ambrosius (1956), a radio play produced by Radio Denmark. His first novel, Av, min guldtand (1957), was partly autobiographical about a dentist dentists appeared also in several other book. Rend mig i traditionerne (1958, Kick Me in the Traditions), a story about the difficulties of puberty, was written in the spirit of J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. The protagonist in the humorous novel was a young boy who escapes from school. He is confined in a mental hospital due to his unyielding attitude towards the norms of society he refuses to become "normalized."
"Plan. Der er Brøns' standardudtryck. Se at få plan over jeres tilværelse, si'r han altid. Mennesket adskiller sig fra dyrene derved, at det kan planlægge. Det lyder da af noget!" (in Rend mig i traditionerne, 1958)
De uanstændige (1960) was set during the years of German occupation of Denmark in World War II. Also the film Hvad med os? (1963) dealt with the occupation through the themes of guilt and obsession. The protagonist, Martin, is haunted by his memories of his participation in the murder of a Nazi collaborator. At the end he is killed by his wartime acquaintances, who want to forget the past. In Øgledage (1961, saurian days), a monologue novel, Panduro used modernistic narrative technique. It is considered his most ambitious work of ficion and explored the psychological problems of youth. Saurians in the story represent repressed elements in society and in the individual.
Panduro's later novels dealt with demands of conformity in the lives of middle-aged heroes. His protagonists, who are tied to their past, have difficulties with their commitments, the outside world, and the younger generation. They try to find a way out of their crisis with different choices and ways of being. Martin Fern, a forty-year-old man, loses his memory in Fern fra Danmark (1963) and refuses to accept the role he is offered. Vejen til Jylland (1966), translated into English as One of Our Millionaires Is Missing, told about a rich Danish-American, who returns to his native country.
In Fejltagelsen (1964) the paranoid Marius Berg developes a severe hypochondria. Healthy friend Hilmer is too normal. In Den gale man Edvard Morner, a bank manager, rejects all human emotions. Daniel from Daniels anden verden (1970), who has a fear of becoming insane, finds salvation in the meeting with the young, schizophrenic Laila. Farvel, Thomas (1968) was a story of a man who loses his own identity when he is abandoned by his wife. Paduro's last novel, Høfeber, came out in 1975.
His early plays, which were produced by provincial repertory theatres, provided an alternative to the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen. In the 1970s Panduro had became one of the most successful Scandinavian dramatists. Though his central themes were defects of the modern welfare state and the conflict between normal and abnormal, Panduro's approach to his subjects was not political his dialogue suggested rather than clearly stated arguments. As a social critic Panduro often taunted norms generally shared by the audience. In I Adams verden (1973) and Louises hus (1974) Panduro attacked bourgeoisie world these are considered among the best Scandinavian television dramas of the 1970s. Rundt om Selma (1971), Panduro's most pessimistic play, depicted the failure of the whole middle-class way of life. Panduro's only stage plays were produced in the early 1960s. Kufferten (The Suitcase) was influenced by Samuel Beckett and Kannibaler i Kaelderen (Cannibals in the Basement) by Eugène Ionesco.
For further reading: Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century, Vol. 3, ed. Steven R. Serafin (1999); Leif Panduro: en biografi by John Chr. Jørgensen (1987); A History of Scandinavian Literature by Sven H. Rossel (1982); 'The King's New Clothes. The Irreverent Portrayal of Royalty in the Works of Leif Panduro and Finn Søeborg' by Hugus, Frank , in Scandinavian Studies, LI (1979); Den gale kærlighed: Motiver i Leif Panduros forfatterskab by Bodil Wamberg (1978); 20th Century Drama in Scandinavia, ed. J. Wrede et al. (1978); Leif Panduro: romaner, noveller, journalistik by Birgitte Hesselaa (1976); Leif Panduro - radio, film, teater, TV by John Chr. Jørgensen (1973)